Avoid Using Directives

C++ Primer 4/e在Namespaces這個地方有一個警告:『using directives, which inject all the names from a namespace, are deceptively simple to use: With only a single statement, all the member names of a namespace are suddenly visible. Although this approach may seem simple, it can introduce its own problems. If an application uses many libraries, and if the names within these libraries are made visible with using directives, then we are back to square one, and the global namespace pollution problem reappears.

Moreover, it is possible that a working program will fail to compile when a new version of the library is introduced. This problem can arise if a new version introduces a name that conflicts with a name that the application is using.

Another problem is that ambiguity errors caused by using directives are detected only at the point of use. This late detection means that conflicts can arise long after introducing a particular library. If the program begins using a new part of the library, previously undetected collisions may arise.

Rather than relying on a using directive, it is better to use a using declaration for each namespace name used in the program. Doing so reduces the number of names injected into the namespace. Ambiguity errors caused by using declarations are detected at the point of declaration, not use, and so are easier to find and fix.』









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